9th Social Science History Lesson 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture - Guide Book answer

9th Social Science History Lesson 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture - Guide Book answer

Lesson : Early Tamil Society and Culture Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

1.The name of the script used in the Sangam Age ………….

(a) English

(b) Devanagari

(c) Tamil-Brahmi

(d) Granta

Answer:

(c) Tamil-Brahmi

2.The Sri Lankan chronicle composed in the Pali language mentioning about merchants and horse traders from Tamil Nadu

(a) Deepa vamsa

(b) Arthasastra

(c) Mahavamsa

(d) Indica

Answer:

(c) Mahavamsa

3.The notable Chola king credited with bringing forest lands under the plough and developing irrigational facilities.

(a) Karikalan

(b) Rajarajari I

(c) Kulothungan

(d) Rajendran I

Answer:

(a) Karikalan

4.Inscription that mentions the Cheras …………..

(a) Pugalur

(b) Gimar

(c) Pulimankombai

(d) Madurai

Answer:

(a) Pugalur

5.The famous Venetian traveller described Kayal as a great and noble city.

(a) Vasco da Gama

(b) Alberuni

(c) Marco Polo

(d) Megasthenes

Answer:

(c) Marco Polo

6.(i) Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam Age.

(ii) Prakrit was the language used by the common people in Northern India during the Mauryan period.

(iii) Vienna Papyrus, a Roman document, mentions trade related to Muziri.

(iv) The concept of Thinai is presented in the Tamil grammar work of Pathupaattu.

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (ii) is correct

(c) (i) and (ii) is correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) is correct

Answer:

(i) is correct

(ii) is correct

(iii) is correct

(iv) incorrect

7.(i) Pathitrupathu speaks about the Pandya kings and their territory.

(ii) The Akanaanuru describes the trading activities at Kaveripoompattinum.

(iii) The Chola Emblem was the tiger and they issued square copper coins with images of a tiger.

(iv) Neythal is a sandy desert region.

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) is correct

(c) (iii) is correct

(d) (iv) is correct

Answer:

(i) incorrect

(ii) incorrect

(iii) is correct

(iv) incorrect

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. ……………. are documents scripted on stones, copper plates, coins, and rings.

Answer : 1. Epigraphy

2. ………….. refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring societies of the past.

Answer : 2. Archeological excavations

3. ……………. the classic work on economy and statecraft authored by Kautilya during the Mauryan period.

Answer : 3. Arthasastra

4. …………… is a poetic theme which means a class or category and refers to habitat or ecozone with specific physiographical characteristics.

Answer : 4. Sangam poems

5. …………. referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans, and West Asian people.

Answer : 5. Yavanar

III. Find out the correct statement.

1.(a) Evidence of iron smelting has been found in Kodumanal and Guttur.

(b) Periplus of Erythren Sea mentions the pepper trade with India.

(c) Punch marked coins are the earliest coins used in India mostly made of gold.

(d) The Sangam Age has its roots in the Bronze Age.

Answer:

(a) correct

(b) incorrect

(c) correct

(d) incorrect

Question 2.

(a) The Cheras ruled over the Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.

(b) The Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions mention the King Karikalan.

(c) The terms Vanikan and Nigama appear in Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions were different types of merchants.

(d) Salt merchants were called Vanikars and they travelled in bullock carts along with their family.

Answer:

(a) incorrect

(b) incorrect

(c) correct

(d) incorrect

V. Answer the following questions briefly.

1.Archaeological sites provide evidence of past history – Discuss.

Answer:

  • Archaeology is the study of the past by interpretation of the material cultural remains.
  • Such remains are unearthered by the Systematic excavation of old inhabitation sites called archaeological sites.
  • Archaeological sites have mounds which are an accumulation of soil, pottery, building, and organic remains and objects.
  • In many parts of Tamil Nadu, they are called Nattam, Kottai, and Medu.
  • Such sites provide evidence of how people lived in the past.

2.How important coin as a source of evidence for the study of the Sangam Age?

Answer:

  • Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam Age.
  • The coins of the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas, punch-marked coins, and Roman coins form another important source of evidence from the Sangam Age.
  • They were used as bullion for their metal value and as ornaments.

3.The Tamil rulers were independent of Mauryan authority. What explanation would you offer?

Answer:

  • The Tamil rulers were independent of Mauryan authority because Ashokan inscriptions found in present-day Odisha, Karnataka, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh are not seen in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • So we can conclude the status of Tamil rulers.

4.Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in the Sangam Age. Give reasons.

Answer:

  • Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence.
  • Crops like paddy, sugarcane, millets were cultivated.
  • Both wet and dryland farming was practiced.
  • Varieties of rice such as Sennel, Vennel, aivananel (a type of rice) are mentioned in the literature.
  • People in the forest adopted Punam or shifting cultivation.

5.Overseas interactions brought glory to ancient Tamilagam. Give examples in support.

Answer:

  • Tamil country had connections with countries overseas both in the east and west.
  • Roman ships used monsoon winds to cross the Western Sea or the Arabian Sea to connect Tamilagam with the Western world.
  • Spices including pepper, ivory, and precious stones were exported. Metal including gold, silver and copper, and precious stones were imported.
  • Yavanar referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans, and West Asian people. Yavana derives from the Greek region of Ionia.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

1.Hero Stones:

(a) What was the common practice in a pastoral society?

Answer:

  • As cattle were considered an important source of wealth, raiding cattle owned by adjoining tribes and clans was common practice in a pastoral society.

(b) Who plundered the cattle wealth of enemies?

Answer:

  • Tribal chieftains plundered the cattle wealth of enemies whose warriors fought to protect their cattle.

(c) How were the dead warriors remembered?

Answer:

  • Many warriors died in such battles and were remembered as martyrs.
  • Memorial stones were erected in their honour.


(d) Which Tamil text describes the procedures for erecting hero stones?

Answer:

  • Tholkappiyam describes the procedures for erecting hero stones.

 2.Non-Tamil Sources (Foreign Accounts):

(a) What does the presence of the non-Tamil sources reveal?

Answer:

  • (a) The presence of the non-Tamil sources reveals the extensive contacts and interactions of the early Tamil society with the outside world.

(b) Name the classic work of the Mauryan period that makes a mention that the pearl and shells came from Pandya country.

Answer:

  • Arthasastra the classic work of the Mauryan period makes mentions that the pearl and shells came from the Pandya country.

(c) What is a chronicle?

Answer:

  • Chronicle is a narrative text presenting the important historical events in chronological order.

(d) Who speaks about the pepper trade between the Roman empire and India?

Answer:

  • Pliny the Elder, a Roman, speaks about the pepper trade with India by the Romans.

3.Industries and Crafts of the Sangam Age:

(a) What were the important aspects of urbanisation?

Answer:

  • Craft production and craft specialization were important aspects of urbanisation.

(b) What is the Tamil name for a potter?

Answer:

  • “Kuyavar” is the Tamil name for potter.

(c) What were the different types of pottery used by the peopla?

Answer:

  • Blackware, russet-coated painted ware, black, and red ware potteries were the different types of pottery used.

(d) Identify the Iron implements required for agriculture and warfare.

Answer:

  • Swords, daggers and spears were the iron implements required for agriculture and warfare.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

1.To what extent do you think the political powers of Tamilagam influenced Sangam Age polity?

Answer:

  1. Sangam Age has its roots in the Iron Age.
  2. In the Iron Age people were organised into chiefdoms.
  3. From such communities of Iron-Age emerged the Vendhars of the early historic period and the Velirs of the Sangam Age were chieftains.
  4. Tamil rulers were independent of the Mauryan authority.
  5. Among the political powers of the Sangam Age, the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas occupied pre-eminent positions. They were known as Muvendhar (the three kings).
  6. The Muvendhar controlled the major towns and ports of the Sangam period.
  7. The Cheras controlled the region of present-day Kerala and also the Western parts of Tamil Nadu.
  8. Vanci was the capital, Muciri and Thondi were their Port towns.
  9. The Cholas ruled over the Kaveri delta and the Northern parts of Tamil Nadu. Uraiyur was their capital, Kaveripoompattinam was the Port town.
  10. The Pandyas who ruled the Southern part of Tamil Nadu are referred to as the Ashokan inscriptions.
  11. Madurai was the capital.
  12. Apart from the Vendhars, there were Velirs and numerous chieftains who occupied territories on the margins of the muvendhar.
  13. The Sangam Age society was a society in transition from a tribal community ruled by a chief to a larger kingdom ruled by a king.
  14. Social stratification had begun to take root in Tamil society by the Sangam times.
  15. Thus the political powers of Tamilagam influenced Sangam society.

2.Indicate how the industries and crafts of the Sangam Age contribute to their economy.

Answer:

  1. Craft production and craft specialisation were important aspects of urbanisation.
  2. In the Sangam Age there were professional groups that produced various commodities.
  3. The system of production of commodities is called industry.
  4. Iron smelting was undertaken in traditional furnaces and such furnaces have been found in many archaeological sites.
  5. Evidence of iron smelting was found in Kodumanal and Guttur.
  6. Iron implements for agriculture and warfare were produced.
  7. Roman gold coins were used to make jewellery.
  8. Evidence of gold smelting was found at Pattanam in Kerala.
  9. Specialised groups called vanikars travelled in groups trading goods and commodities between regions.
  10. Barter was the primary mode of exchange.
  11. Tamilagam exported pepper, ivory, and precious stones to the western world and imported gold, silver, copper, etc.
  12. Indian pottery has been discovered at Berenike, a port on the Red Sea Coast.
  13. A stone with the name ‘Perumpatankal’ has been found at Khuan Luk Pat, Thailand.
  14. Southeast Asia was known as Suvama Bhoomi in Tamil literature.
  15. The economy of the Sangam Age was mixed as elaborated in the Thinai concept.
  16. People practiced agriculture, pastoralism, trade and money exchange, hunting and gathering, and fishing depending upon the ecozones in which they lived.

Student Activities

1.Mark on the map of south India, the ancient Tamilagam and the territories of Tamil kingdoms.

Answer:

  • You can take guidance from your teacher and reference from the internet to mark the ancient Tamilagam and the territories of Tamil Kingdoms on the map of South India.

2.Visit a museum and collect information about inscriptions, coins and instruments used by the ancient people.

Answer:

  • The teacher can arrange a visit to the museum for the students. The students can collect information about inscriptions, coins, and instruments used by the ancient people.

3.Visit the early historic sites of Arikkamedu, Kaveripoompattinam, Keezhadi etc.

Answer:

  • The teacher can arrange a visit to the early historic sites of Arikkamedu, Kaveripoompattinam, Keezhadi, etc.

4.Conduct a study on materials excavated from prehistoric sites and on Tamil-Brahmi script.

Answer:

  • You can do this activity with the help of your teacher.

Assignment with teacher’s guidance

1. A power-point presentation on the origin of human life.

  • Refer to the Books, Internet to collect the points.


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