9th Social Science History Lesson 4 - Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes

9th Social Science History Lesson 4 - Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes

Lesson 4 - Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes 

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.

Identify the founder of a new sect who exemplified simplicity and self-denial.

(a) Buddha

(b) Lao-tze

(c) Confucius

(d) Zoroaster

Answer:

(a) Buddha

Question 2.

The Magadha king influenced by the teachings of Mahavira.

(a) Dhananandha

(b) Chandragupta

(c) Bimbisara

(d) Shishunaga

Answer:

(b) Chandragupta

Question 3.

The northern India extended from the Kabul Valley in the north to the Godavari in the south witnessed the rise of Sixteen States.

(a) Mahajanapadas

(b) Gana-sanghas

(c) Dravida

(d) Dakshinapatha

Answer:

(a) Mahajanapadas

Question 4.

Tri-ratnas are the three priniciples taught by ……………..

(a) Buddha

(b) Mahavira

(c) Lao-tze

(d) Confucius

Answer:

(b) Mahavira

Question 5.

The account which throws light on Mauryan polity and society …………..

(a) Marco Polo

(b) Fahien

(c) Megasthanes

(d) Seleucus

Answer:

(c) Megasthanes

Question 6.

(i) Under the Magadha king the mahamatriyas functioned as secretaries to the ministers.

(ii) Accounts of Megasthanes titled Indica is a useful record about Mauryan polity and society.

(iii) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka who founded the Mauryan kingdom.

(iv) According to tradition, towards the end of his life Chandragupta became an ardent follower of Buddhism.

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (ii) is correct

(c) (i) and (ii) is correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) is correct

Answer:

(i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. ………….. is a collection of sacred literature of different epochs, containing prayers, confessions and myths.

  • 1. ZendAvesta

2. In the Gangetic plain …………… agriculture required the use of bullocks.

  • 2. Iron plough

3. Jains believe that …………….. came in a long line of Tirthankaras and he was the twenty – fourth and the last.

  • 3. Mahavira

4. The place where Buddha attained enlightenment has been built into the Mahabodhi temple that still exists in ……………..

  • 4. Bodh Gaya

5. The rock edicts form the reliable source to know about the Mauryan empire in particular the Dharmic rule of ……………….

  • 5. Ashoka

III. Find out the correct statement.

 1.(a) The introduction of Bronze tools made easy the removal of dense forest cover from the banks of the Ganges.

(b) Ajivikas had a small presence in western India.

(c) The clusters where particular clansmen were dominant came to be known were Pre-Maury an states.

(d) Of the kingdoms mentioned in the literature .of the period Kashi, Kosala and Magadha are considered to be powerful.

Answer:

(d) correct

 2.(a) Ajatashatru was the first important king of Magadha.

(b) Bimbisara succeeded in establishing a comprehensive structure of administration.

(c) The Mauryas were the first of non-Kshatriya dynasties to rule in northern India.

(d) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka.

Answer:

(b) correct

V. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.

The invention of the smelting of Iron transformed both production and warfare. Justify.

Answer:

  • The invention of the smelting of iron transformed both production and warfare.
  • Before iron, copper, and its alloy, bronze which was expensive was employed in production.
  • The weapons (or) ploughs made of copper (of) bronze edges became blunt quickly.
  • Iron ore in contrast was available in abundance.
  • The “weapons made of iron was in usage.
  • The iron axe enabled cultivators to clear the jungles and the iron plough was used to break the hardest soil.

Question 2.

Elaborate on the term “Tri-Ratna”.

Answer:

  • The three principles of Jainism, also known as Tri-Ratnas are the following:
  • Right faith: Belief in the teachings and wisdom of Mahavira.
  • Right knowledge: Acceptance of the theory that there is no God and that the world existed without a creator.

Right action: 

It refers to Mahavira’s observance of the fire great views

  • Ahimsa
  • Honesty
  • Kindness
  • Truthfulness
  • not coveting or desiring things belonging to others.

Question 3.

What do you know of Ajatasatru?

Answer:

  • Ajatashatru, the son of Bimbisara is said to have murdered his father and ascended the throne in 493 BCE
  • He continued his father’s policy of expansion through military conquests.
  • He strengthened the Rajagriha fort and also built another fort at Pataligrama on the Ganges. It served as the exchange centre for the local produce and late became the Mauryan capital of Pataliputra.
  • Ajatasatru died in 461 BCE.

Question 4.

What does the Edict of Kalinga convey?

Answer:

  • In one of his Kalinga edicts, he tells his horror and sorrow over the deaths which the war and conquest caused.
  • In yet another edict, he makes it known that Ashoka would not tolerate any longer the death (or) captivity or even the hundredth (or) thousandth part of the number killed and captive in Kalinga.

Question 5.

Highlight the steps taken by Ashoka to spread Buddhism.

Answer:

  • Steps were taken by Ashoka to spread Buddhism:
  • Ashoka became an ardent Buddhist after meeting the Buddhist monk Upagupta and propounded his Dharma.
  • He issued edicts, which were carved out in the rock.
  • He protected the animals.
  • Hospitals were constructed for them and animal sacrifice was forbidden.
  • Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and his daughter Sanghamitra to Ceylon to spread his message of Dharma there. Ashoka died after ruling for 38 years.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

1.Zoroastrianism

(a) Who was the founder?

Answer:

  • Zoroaster of Persia is the founder of Zoroastrianism.

(b) Name the God he proclaimed.

Answer:

  • Ahura Mazda (the Lord of lights)

(c) What did Zoroaster teach?

Answer:

  • Zoroaster taught that the great object of a religious state or society is the cultivation of morality.

(d) What was the highest form of worship?

Answer:

  • Fire was worshipped as a symbol of the deity and considered the highest form of worship.

2.Gautama Buddha

(a) What was the original name of Buddha?

Answer:

  • The original name of Buddha was Siddhartha.

(b) Name the birthplace of Buddha.

Answer:

  • The birthplace of Buddha in Lumbini Garden near Kapilavasthu in 567 BCE.

(c) Where did he get enlightenment?

Answer:

  • He got enlightenment in the Mahabodhi temple, which still exists in Bodh Gaya (Bihar).

(d) Mention the place of his first sermon.

Answer:

  • The place of his first sermon was Samath.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.

Discuss the five cardinal principles of Confucius.

Answer:

Five Cardinal Principles of Confucius Ethics

  • Humaneness
  • Righteousness
  • Propriety
  • Wisdom
  • Trustworthiness

(i) Confucius said that wisdom grows from the family and that the foundation of society is the disciplined individual in an orderly family.

(ii) The superior man, according to him, is not merely intelligent or scholarly, but his character should be exemplary.

(iii) The superior man of Confucius possesses three virtues: intelligence, courage, and goodwill

(iv) Though Confucius insisted on children obeying parents and wife her husband, he also clearly proposed that “when the command is wrong a son should resist his father and a minister should resist the prince.’’

(v) When asked about government, he said that there are three requisites for it: “That there should be sufficiency of food, the sufficiency of military equipment and confidence of the people in their ruler.”

(vi) The philosophy of Confucius gave the Chinese people awareness about their political rights.

(vii) It also clearly listed the government’s duty towards the people. Confucius felt that the government should work with an ideal.

(viii) In matters of national life, Confucius felt that the people in the nation are the actual and proper source of political sovereignty. He advised that the ruler must appoint persons of character in the government to govern the people impartially.

(ix) Confucianism is often characterized as a system of social and ethical philosophy rather than as a religion.

 2.Compare and contrast the principles of Jainism and Buddhism.

Answer:

  • The founders of Jainism and Buddhism did not prescribe killing as a religious rite.
  • They secured their livelihood mostly by alms. Celibacy and abstinence from holding property made the new teachers much more acceptable than the Brahman priests.
  • The people’s resentment about the expensive and elaborate Vedic rituals, animal sacrifice, and the desire for wealth eventually took them towards Jainism and Buddhism.
  • Mahavira and Buddha lived a life of purity and exemplified simplicity and self-denial. They lived in the times of Bimbisara and Ajatashatru, the famous kings of Magadha.
  • The commercial development of the northern cities like Kaushambi, Kushinagar, Benaras, Vaishali, and Rajgir added importance to the Vaishyas who turned to Buddhism and Jainism in their eagerness to improve their social status.

Student Activities

1.Prepare a case study of Asoka’s Edicts.

Answer:

  • “There are 33 edicts, including 14 Major Rock edicts, 7 Pillar edicts and 2 Kalinga edicts apart from Minor Rock edicts and Minor Pillar inscriptions”.

(i) The students can be divided into three groups in the class. Each group will be assigned a particular work, such as Major Rock Edicts, Pillar Edicts, and Kalinga Edicts.

(ii) They can refer to History Books, from the library (or) download from the Internet.

(iii) The teacher will be there to motivate the students.

2.Enact a drama about the life and teachings of Buddha.

Answer:

(i) You can prepare the script with the assistance of your teacher.

(ii) The drama can be enacted as a recreational activity in the class.

Assignment with teacher’s guidance

(i) List out the countries where Buddhism exists in the world and mark it on the world map. Some of the Buddhist countries are Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Laos, Mongolia, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, China, and Vietnam. The students can mark these places on the world map.

(ii) Prepare a clay model of Sanchi Stupa, Darmachakra.

  • You can do this activity in groups with the help of your teacher.

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